The bridge rectifier is made up of four silicon rectifier chips for bridge connection and externally packaged with insulating plastic. The high-power bridge rectifier is encapsulated with a zinc metal shell outside the insulating layer to enhance heat dissipation.

There are many types of bridge rectifiers: flat, round, square, bench-shaped (in-line and patch), etc., and there are GPP and O/J structures. The maximum rectified current ranges from 0.5A to 100A, and the maximum reverse peak Voltage ranges from 50V to 1600V.

The half bridge is to seal the half of the two diode bridge rectifiers together. Two half bridges can form a bridge rectifier circuit, and a half bridge can also form a full wave rectifier circuit with a center tap of a transformer.

When choosing a rectifier bridge, consider the rectifier circuit and operating Voltage.
The rectifier bridge stack is generally used in a full-wave rectifier circuit, and it is divided into a full bridge and a half bridge.
The full bridge is composed of 4 rectifier diodes connected in the form of a bridge full-wave rectifier circuit and packaged as a whole.

The forward current of the full bridge has various specifications such as 0.5A, 1A, 1.5A, 2A, 2.5A, 3A, 5A, 10A, 20A, 35A, 50A, etc. The withstand voltage (the highest reverse voltage) is 25V, 50V, Various specifications such as 100V, 200V, 300V, 400V, 500V, 600V, 800V, 1000V, etc. https://theicinfo.com/

Honda and Verizon recently announced that they are . Such safety functions require super-fast data transmission using 5G along with mobile edge computing (MEC) technology to reduce the latency of compute-intensive operations.

 

Honda and Verizon Put 5G on Wheels With Mobile Edge Computing

Teaming up with the University of Michigan, the Honda-Verizon research collaboration has already tested 5G, MEC, and vehicle-to-everything (V2X) technology in several road incident scenarios. Image used courtesy of
 

In this article, we’ll take a look at what MEC is and how it can facilitate latency-sensitive applications—specifically those on the road.

 

First, Some Background on Cloud Computing

, especially data storage and computing power, over the internet. For example, instead of buying and maintaining a physical data storage device, a user can turn to cloud technology to store data in a remote database. Users gain access to these shared resources on an as-needed basis and only pay for the services used.

Among other advantages such as reliability and quick deployment, cloud computing can also improve performance in global-scale services. This is because major cloud providers are based on a worldwide network of data centers. Running on this worldwide network, the application is executed in closer proximity to the end users, leading to reduced latency and improved performance.

However, even this proximity may not cut it for extremely latency-sensitive applications such as vehicular networks.

 

What Is Mobile Edge Computing?

(MEC)—formerly known as mobile edge computing—attempts to bring the capabilities of cloud computing to the edge of the mobile network within the radio access network (RAN) and in close proximity to mobile subscribers.

 

Honda and Verizon Put 5G on Wheels With Mobile Edge Computing

Depiction of how MECs connect to cloud servers. Image used courtesy of
 

MEC is the next step in the evolution of mobile base stations. With MEC, compute-intensive operations can be performed in base stations rather than on remote servers of the cloud provider. This can reduce the latency as well as congestion on mobile networks. 

 

MEC Makes Its Way to Autonomous Vehicles

Future connected, autonomous vehicles will need access to local contextual information such as the position of the nearby vehicles, motorcycles, pedestrians, and weather conditions to avoid collisions. 

The Honda-Verizon research collaboration attempts to reduce the need for complex AI computing on-board each connected vehicle. However, it is not possible to use cloud computing for implementing these heavy computations when considering the latency of interfacing with the cloud central servers.

Hence, the Honda-Verizon research attempts to implement the required artificial intelligence functions in mobile base stations instead of in cloud servers or on-board the vehicles.

This option will require the incorporation of two rather nascent technologies: 5G for the required data transmission speeds and .

 

Honda and Verizon Put 5G on Wheels With Mobile Edge Computing

Agnostic of radio interface, MEC can be used in both 4G and 5G networks. Image used courtesy of
 

The Honda-Verizon research uses the 5G network to relay the information captured by smart cameras to the MEC. MEC analyzes this information in a short period of time and if necessary, sends warning messages to the drivers. 

 

Combining 5G and MEC for Safer Roads

and a throughput up to 50 times faster than existing 4G networks. However, it’s important to note that these are not achieved only by improved circuit blocks that enable communication in the millimeter-wave (mmWave) range. Under the covers, . 

 

Honda and Verizon Put 5G on Wheels With Mobile Edge Computing

In MEC scenarios, connected vehicles can receive data—and react—within a matter of milliseconds. Image used courtesy of the 

 

For example, 5G will be driven by software. This is due to the fact that 5G should support several different functions, such as , through the same physical network. This can be achieved only by employing emerging technologies such as software-defined networking (SDN), network functions virtualization (NFV), mobile edge computing (MEC), and . These technologies will provide 5G with the required performance, scalability, and agility. 

 


 

From a hardware standpoint, what are your thoughts on the convergence of 5G, edge computing, and vehicle functionality? Share your ideas in the comments below. 

Infineon BSM300GB120DLC In Stock

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BSM300GB120DLC
Manufacturer: Infineon
Product Category: IGBT Modules
RoHS: No
Brand: Infineon Technologies
Product: IGBT Silicon Modules
Configuration: Dual
Collector- Emitter Voltage VCEO Max: 1200 V
Collector-Emitter Saturation Voltage: 2.1 V
Continuous Collector Current at 25 C: 625 A
Gate-Emitter Leakage Current: 400 nA
Pd – Power Dissipation: 2500 W
Package / Case: 62 mm
Maximum Operating Temperature: + 125 C
Packaging: Tray
Maximum Gate Emitter Voltage: +/- 20 V
Minimum Operating Temperature: – 40 C
Mounting Style: Screw
Factory Pack Quantity: 10

Logic Circuit
Logic circuit is a kind of discrete signal transmission and processing, based on the principle of binary, the realization of digital signal logic operation and operation of the circuit. It is divided into combinational logic circuit and sequential logic circuit. The former is composed of the most basic “AND gate” circuit, “OR gate” circuit and “NOT gate” circuit. Its output value depends only on the current value of its input variable and has nothing to do with the past value of the input variable—that is, it has no memory and storage. Function; the latter is also composed of the above-mentioned basic logic gate circuit, but there is a feedback loop-its output value depends not only on the current value of the input variable, but also on the past value of the input variable. Since it is only divided into high and low levels, it has strong anti-interference ability and good accuracy and confidentiality. It is widely used in computer, digital control, communication, automation and instrumentation. The most basic ones are AND circuit, OR circuit and NOT circuit. https://IGBT.online/logic-circuit/

IGBT
IGBT (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor), insulated gate bipolar transistor, is a composite fully controlled Voltage-driven power semiconductor device composed of BJT (bipolar transistor) and MOS (insulated gate field effect transistor), which also has MOSFET The advantages of high input impedance and low on-Voltage drop of GTR. The saturation voltage of GTR is reduced, the current-carrying density is high, but the driving current is large; the MOSFET driving power is small, the switching speed is fast, but the conduction voltage drop is large, and the current-carrying density is small. IGBT combines the advantages of the above two devices, with low driving power and reduced saturation voltage. It is very suitable to be used in converter systems with a DC voltage of 600V and above, such as AC motors, frequency converters, switching power supplies, lighting circuits, traction drives and other fields.

In layman’s terms: IGBT is a high-power power Electronic device. It is a non-on-off switch. IGBT has no function of amplifying voltage. It can be regarded as a wire when it is turned on, and it is regarded as an open circuit when it is turned off. The three main characteristics are high voltage, high current, and high speed.

IGBT module
IGBT is the abbreviation of Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor). IGBT is a device composed of MOSFET and bipolar transistor. Its input is MOSFET and output is PNP transistor. It combines these two The advantages of the device are not only the advantages of low driving power and fast switching speed of MOSFET devices, but also the advantages of reduced saturation voltage and large capacity of bipolar devices. Its frequency characteristics are between MOSFET and power transistors, and it can work normally at several times. Within the frequency range of ten kHz, it has been used more and more widely in modern power electronic technology, and it has occupied a leading position in high-frequency and med

NVIDIA’s GPU Technology Conference has yet again served as a launchpad for the company’s newest DPU. , the chip is reported to feature exceptional performance for AI applications, accelerated computing, and more. What improvements have been made in NVIDIA's BlueField line? And what is the company's roadmap for this DPU moving forward?
 

Performance Highlights of BlueField-3

The NVIDIA BlueField-3 . The company explains this feature leverages Ethernet-and-fiber channels to facilitate data transmission between remote resources—essential for hybrid and cloud computing setups with off-site servers. Traditional NVMe devices often fall short due to their direct PCIe bus connections.

 

NVIDIA Scales the Cloud With a Reimagined Data Processing Unit (DPU)

The NVIDIA BlueField-3 data processing unit. Image used courtesy of
 

Fabrics-based NVMEs are renowned for their low latency. According to NVIDIA, BlueField-3 is the first DPU to support PCIe 5.0, even offering 32 lanes with bi-furcation for up to 16 downstream ports. 

Those connectivity delays can undermine overall networking performance—a major BlueField-3 highlight. It remains the so-called “industry’s first 400 Gbps DPU” and accomplishes this via Ethernet or InfiniBand. The latter has been a longstanding staple of supercomputing switching, underscoring the technology’s viability for demanding workloads.

 

BlueField-2 vs. BlueField-3

In the past, All About Circuits contributor Nicholas St. John pointed out that while .

NVIDIA is putting this principle into play by , the NVIDIA DGX SuperPOD. Whether BlueField-3 becomes the centerpiece of a successor (e.g., “SuperPOD 2”) is unclear, though NVIDIA would ideally use home-grown platforms as testbeds. 

 

NVIDIA Scales the Cloud With a Reimagined Data Processing Unit (DPU)

NVIDIA has routed its BlueField-2 DPUs to its DGX SuperPOD. Image used courtesy of
 

Sixteen Arm A78 cores (64-bit) power the DPU—dwarfing BlueField-2’s cryptography acceleration by four times. It also delivers the collective performance of up to 300 CPU cores, typically found within traditional data center environments. Other notable tech specs include the following: 

  • 1, 2, 4 Ethernet ports
  • 8 MB L2 cache
  • 16 MB LLC system cache
  • 256 data path accelerator threads
  • 16 GB of onboard, DDR5 memory with dual 5600 MT/s DRAM controllers
  • Full-height or half-height architectures, each at half-length (FHHL or HHHL)
  • M.2 and U.2 connectors
  • 1 GbE out-of-band management port

Conversely, the BlueField-2 only supported 200 Gbps max performance, up to eight Arm A72 cores, and either 8 or 16 PCIe 4.0 lanes. is also critical. DDR5 supports doubled data rates over its predecessor. The memory controller associated with error-correcting code is moved onto the RAM unit—freeing the CPU while allowing faster memory-error checking for always-on remote servers.  

 

BlueField Scales the Cloud

NVIDIA’s elevator pitch for BlueField-3 is simple: unlock better software-defined networking, storage, and cybersecurity. The company has acknowledged an industry-wide movement toward hybrid and full-cloud environments amidst the growth of AI applications.

On-premise data centers aren’t completely disappearing. However, it’s clear that professionals are processing mountainous quantities of data over the airwaves—and existing chips aren’t cutting it. 

The cloud’s major advantage is scalability. While physical facilities face space restrictions—requiring sizeable investment and land procurement for expansion—external vendors have excess capacity to loan out. These servers allow employees to access data from anywhere. However, not all companies are keen on storing sensitive data externally—making BlueField chips useful for transmitting data to endpoints like servers, computers, and mobile devices. 

 

Architectured With Security in Mind

The chipset offers firewall distribution, IDS/IPS, root of trust, micro-segmentation, and DDOS protections. These building blocks are essential within zero-trust environments.

Resting and moving data are encrypted. AES-GCM 128/256-bit keys are supported, as is AES-XTS 256/512-bit. is also available—thwarting viruses, spam, malware, and spyware. NVIDIA’s Morpheus framework takes AI-based security a step forward, mainly by defeating real-time security threats. 

BlueField-3 is the hardware component, yet software is equally important. The DOCA SDK gives teams tools for monitoring thousands of datacenter DPUs—including provisioning and monitoring. There’s hope that library-and-API management will be streamlined. 

 

NVIDIA Scales the Cloud With a Reimagined Data Processing Unit (DPU)

NVIDIA says its DOCA SDK brings data center infrastructure to a chip architecture. Image used courtesy of
 

How the DPU Optimizes AI-facing CPUs

Engineers offload the behemoth of AI software tasks to powerful hardware. Chips like BlueField-3, built upon NVIDIA’s DOCA architecture, remove the load from the CPU to make these processes even faster. Virtualization, networking, and storage are accelerated. 

For AI applications, . Because GPUs excel at AI training exercises, they’ve permeated the supercomputing realm. Accordingly, BlueField-3 explicitly supports multi-tenant “cloud-native supercomputing” for extreme workloads. While CPUs are extremely important in tandem, NVIDIA’s solution shoulders much of the burden—allowing CPUs to tackle operations for which they’re more optimized. 

 

BlueField Garners (Many) Votes of Confidence

A number of server manufacturers and cloud providers are already leveraging BlueField DPUs for specialized workloads, including Dell, Lenovo, Baidu, Canonical, Red Hat, and VMware, among many others. 

However, numerous companies have seen the potential in DPU acceleration, and have since partnered with NVIDIA following their announcements at the GPU Technology Conference. Goals include supercharging application performance, operational consistency across diverse environments, and upholding security without compromising performance. 

 

NVIDIA Scales the Cloud With a Reimagined Data Processing Unit (DPU)

Players in the BlueField DPU ecosystem. Image (modified) used courtesy of
 

Emerging autonomous vehicle technology . These autonomous systems rely on a mix of deep learning, computer vision, and AI processing to function properly. The system-on-chip blends Arm CPU cores and NVIDIA’s own GPU technologies—namely BlueField. Beyond just vehicles, it’s possible that robotics applications may benefit from BlueField’s continued development. 

BlueField-3 is backward compatible with BlueField-2, and is expected to become available by Q1 2022. 

Analog Devices (ADI) has unveiled  This new platform consists of a small family of reference designs, starting with the and the   

 

ADI’s RF Platform Hunkers Down on Phase Determinism for Defense Communication

The new 16TX/16RX quad mixed (digital/analog) radio front end. Image used courtesy of
 

The Quad-MxFE platform is available as a complete reference design, including an RF signal chain, software architectures and application samples, and the power design architecture. The calibration board, which is also available, is programmable with MATLAB.

MATLAB algorithms allow users to confirm channelization metrics such as combined channel dynamic range, phase noise measurements, and most importantly, phase determinism. 

According to Analog Devices, this platform may be especially useful in aerospace and defense applications ranging from phased-array radars to SATCOM (satellite communications) on the ground.

 

ADI’s Quad-MxFE Specifications

At its core, this new from ADI is a synchronized array of multiple analog-to-digital (ADCs) and digital-to-analog converter (DACs). The platform comes in two quad-array offerings, with the  or the  chipsets, which have 4D4A or 4D2A converters, respectively. 

 

ADI’s RF Platform Hunkers Down on Phase Determinism for Defense Communication

Quad-MxFE's block diagram. Image used courtesy of

 

Eight serializer/deserializers () interface with a (separate optional platform) operating at upwards of 24.75 Gbps/lane () or 15.5 Gbps/lane () to move digital data into and out of each of the four chips on the platform. 

 

Beamforming Technology Basics

Beamforming technology has seen massive investment over the past several years, with the military investing significant resources in phased-array technology. Applications can utilize both conventional RF and  (radar detection and characterization). 

Commercially,  with the optimization of MIMO antenna systems.

Fundamentally, beamforming operates by introducing analog and digital delays into a coherent signal chain. These delays steer the direction of the aggregate main lobe propagating from the antenna superstructure. 

 

ADI’s RF Platform Hunkers Down on Phase Determinism for Defense Communication

A phased array receiver with time delays used in beam-steering. Image used courtesy of
 

The propagated signals will add constructively (and destructively) to generate (or receive) a wavefront in the direction of interest and suppress unwanted side lobes in the antenna pattern.

This procedure can be complicated, requiring strict timing constraints on the digitizer array. Each digitizer module's phase must be deterministically quantified with respect to the other modules of the array to generate coherent and useful wavefronts. 

ADI tackles this complexity at the sub-system with multi-chip calibration algorithms and system-level with the calibration board. 

 

Multi-chip Synchronization Calibration and Phase Determinism

Electronically steering an antenna pattern using a phased array requires knowing each array element's relationship (phase). —just that they be quantified so that software adjustment can be performed to align them.  

The AD9081/AD9082 can synchronize each digitizer chip in the complete system by reprogramming DSP blocks such as:

  • Numerically controlled oscillators (NCOs)
  • Programming finite impulse response blocks for phase and amplitude

 

ADI’s RF Platform Hunkers Down on Phase Determinism for Defense Communication

A schematic of the multi-chip calibration between baseband FPGA and the MxFE platform. Image used courtesy of
 

In the sub-assembly, two procedures are completed: NCO master-slave sync and a one-shot sync, which is used to prepare the array for the NCO master-slave sync. These procedures bring the system one step closer to phase determinism by aligning specific inputs.  

After those two procedures are completed, the phase-locked loops on the Quad-MxFE are calibrated for thermal drift with the calibration board. 

 

ADI’s RF Platform Hunkers Down on Phase Determinism for Defense Communication

Calibration board (left) interfaced to MxFE board (middle) and Xilinx Virtex FPGA (right). Image used courtesy of
 

ADI says its new reference design will help simplify prototyping and proliferation of advanced phased-array communication technology, especially for military, aerospace, and commercial applications.

 


 

Do you work with phased-array applications for telecommunications? What aspect interests you the most about this new mixed RF design? Let us know in the comments below.

With the rapid development of the industrial revolution, the consumption of resources is also increasing, and many resources are non-renewable. In order to ensure the normal development of the future, people began to study energy-saving products. LED high bay light is one of them. The main function of LED heatsink housing high bay light is the lighting of large-scale occasions or the lighting of industrial and mining industries. It is a widely used lamp. However, when applying LED high bay lights, four technical indicators need to be paid attention to:

  • 1. Thermal resistance directly affects the heat dissipation of LED high bay lights. The lower the thermal resistance, the better the heat dissipation; the higher the thermal resistance, the poorer the heat dissipation, so that the temperature of the device increases, which will affect the wavelength shift of light. According to experience, when the temperature rises by one degree, the light wavelength must drift 0.2~0.3nm, which will directly affect the light-emitting quality of the device. Excessive temperature rise also directly affects the service life of LED high bay lights.
    2. Color rendering is an important indicator of LED heatsink housing high bay lights, and the color rendering must be above 80.
    3. Whether the color temperature distribution is uniform or not will directly affect the lighting effect; and the color temperature and the color rendering index are related to each other, and the change of the color temperature will cause the change of the color rendering index.
    4. Mastering the light intensity distribution diagram of LED high bay lights is necessary for the correct use of LED high bay lights. Manufacturers must provide customers with various parameter indicators of LED high bay lights.

PTJ specializes in the R&D, manufacturing, sales and service of LED street lights, LED high bay lights, LED tunnel lights, high-efficiency LED modules and other products, providing high-quality and high-performance LED heatsink housing application products for professional channel customers and end customers at home and abroad And solutions. The current products are mainly LED energy-saving lighting, including venue lighting, municipal lighting, port lighting and other series of products.

With the rapid economic development, various industrial plants have sprung up like bamboo shoots, and these industrial plants have different locations in the space and environment, and the lighting methods used in the workshop are very different, but most of the industrial plants today Regardless of the location of the space, the most common lighting method they choose is LED heat sink bar factory lighting. What are the advantages of such a lighting method? Industrial enterprises like it so much.

Industrial and mining lamps refer to the general term of lamps used in factories, mines, warehouses, and high-bay production areas. In addition to various lighting lamps used in normal environments, there are explosion-proof lamps and anti-corrosion lamps used in special environments. light. The led industrial and mining lamps have high luminous efficiency and are more energy-saving. It is equivalent to a 100W LED industrial and mining lamp that can replace the traditional 250W traditional industrial and mining lamp. Traditional light sources have the disadvantage of high temperature of lamps, and the temperature of lamps can reach about 200-300 degrees. The LED itself is a cold light source, the temperature of the lamp is lower, and it is safer, and it is cold-driven. LED industrial and mining lamps are now in continuous innovation. The new type of led industrial and mining lamps have a more reasonable radiator design, which greatly reduces the weight of led industrial and mining lamps, and reduces the overall weight of about 80W led industrial and mining lamps to below about 4KG. It can solve the heat dissipation problem of 80-300W LED heat sink bar high bay lights.

What are the requirements for the use of high bay lights?
In order to meet the visual needs of different production operations and the needs of lighting installation conditions, the reflector of the industrial and mining lamp should be able to produce various widths of light distribution. The surface is painted and glazed to make it appear white, and reflectors made of aluminum, glass mirrors, prism glass and other materials can obtain a wide light distribution, which is suitable for large-area, vertical or nearly vertical workplaces . For tall workshops and places with tall machine tools that require separate lighting, reflectors made of materials with strong light control properties such as prism glass, mirror glass and polished aluminum can be used to obtain a narrow beam distribution.

In order to work reliably for a long time in places with poor environmental conditions such as dust and humidity, high bay lights have special requirements in terms of structural design, housing and reflectors. Closed luminaires or convection luminaires with upward luminous flux should be used in dusty environments; attention should be paid to the airtightness of the enclosure and the surface treatment of the reflector in humid environments; open luminaires are commonly used indoors, using enamel surface reflectors and surface oxidation Aluminum reflector with thick aluminum film or coated with silicon dioxide protective film; considering the inevitable vibration in the production site, the fixed light source should adopt anti-loosening lamp holder, etc. There are many ways to fix high bay lights. General lighting has the form of ceiling, embedded, hoisting (using straight pipe or chain) and suction wall. Movable local illuminators are equipped with corresponding hooks, handles, clamp feet, etc.; fixed local illuminators are generally firmly locked on the working machine with screws or fixing mechanisms.

First, most of the PTJ LED high bay lights use imported SMD lamp beads as the main light source, and use imported semiconductor crystals. It has the advantages of high thermal conductivity, low light attenuation, and no ghosting.
Second, this kind of lighting uses no polluting materials such as lead and mercury, so it has the advantage of being green and environmentally friendly without any pollution.
Third, it adopts a very unique heat dissipation design, and is cleverly combined with the electrical box to effectively spread the heat, thereby reducing the temperature in the LED heat sink bar lamp, which effectively ensures the life of the lamp body.
Fourth, it also has very good color rendering properties. The color of any physical substance is very true. There are many light colors to choose from. No matter what the environment is, it can be satisfied, which eliminates the past. The lighting brings the depressive emotions to the staff, thereby increasing the effective work rate of people.

In recent years, LED high bay lights have been vigorously promoted to replace traditional lighting fixtures. LED manufacturers seize this business opportunity and technology has been continuously optimized and breakthroughs. Nowadays, LED heat sink bar high bay lights are one of the main forces of the country to save energy and reduce emissions. Very well spread to all areas of society. The following introduces the characteristics of LED industrial and mining light sources:
1. Efficiency: Energy consumption is reduced by 80% compared with incandescent lamps with the same light effect.
2. Voltage: LED heat sink bar high bay lights use low-voltage power supply, the power supply voltage is between 6-24V, depending on the product is different, so it is a safer power supply than using high-voltage power supply, especially suitable for public places.
3. Stability: 100,000 hours, the light decay is 50% of the initial.
4. Environmental pollution: no harmful metal mercury
5. Response time: The response time of the incandescent lamp is milliseconds, and the response time of LED high bay lights is nanoseconds.
6. Applicability: small, each unit LED heat sink bar chip is 3-5mm square, so it can be prepared into various shapes of equipment, and is suitable for variable environments.